As the Policy Assistant to the Official Opposition’s National Defence Critic I am responsible for coordinating and overseeing all communications products for the caucus. Examples of internal communication products I have contributed include talking points, internal memos, briefing notes for individual Members of Parliament as well as for all of caucus, and communications roll-out strategies for specific issues or projects. These tools help members of caucus and their staff stay informed and ensure constant messaging.
Examples of my work included in this section:
1. Talking Points (Budget 2016 Defence Backgrounder)
2. Talking Points (Class Actions Law Suit)
3. Briefing note on changes to Operation IMPACT (for all members of Caucus)
4. Briefing note on Defence Policy Review (for a specific committee of Caucus)
5. Communications roll-out strategy for the CPC National Defence Policy Review Submission
6. Memo to caucus regarding hosting consultations
Budget 2016 - Defence Backgrounder
Budget 2016 is an attack on the Canadian Armed Forces. It was the Liberal Party of the 1990’s that ushered in a decade of darkness for the Canadian military and now the Liberals are picking up where they left off. In this global age of terror, the decision to implement massive cuts to military spending shows how dangerously naïve Justin Trudeau’s Liberals are, and puts the safety and security of Canadians at risk.
• With his first budget, Prime Minister Trudeau has shown how dangerously naïve he is when it comes to the threats posed to Canada. The unfortunate decision to postpone military spending puts the safety and security of Canadians at risk.
• This new budget puts much needed investments on military ships, aircraft and vehicles on hold until after the next election. That’s $3.7 billion worth of much needed equipment that the men and women of the Canadian Armed Forces won’t see over the life of this Liberal Government.
• The brave men and women of the Canadian Armed Forces put their lives at risk every day to protect our security, our sovereignty, and our freedoms. This budget fails to provide our military with the resources they need and deserve.
• In the depths of the Decade of Darkness, the Liberals reduced the defence budget by over 20%.
• Now, the Trudeau government is delaying $3.7 billion in procurement spending over the next 5 years for new military equipment ( http://www.budget.gc.ca/2016/docs/plan/ch6-en.html#_Toc446106832)
• Additionally, the total National Defence main estimates have been cut by over $300 million. (http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/hgw-cgf/finances/pgs-pdg/gepme-pdgbpd/20162017/me-bpd02-eng.asp#toc7-76)
• We increased the budget for National Defence from $14.5 billion in 2005-06 to over $20 billion in 2014-15. (http://www.forces.gc.ca/en/about-reports-pubs-quarterly-financial/statement-authorities-december-2015.page)
• In our last year in office, defence spending was nearly twice what the liberals spent in almost any given year during the 1990s.
• It is no surprise that the Liberals would want to deflect attention away from their own legacy, the ‘decade of darkness’, which they inflicted upon our armed forces.
• It was hard work to reverse the Liberal ‘decade of darkness.’ Our Conservative government purchased new Leopard tanks, Chinook helicopters, C-17 heavy lift planes, C-130J aircraft and finally acquired the Cyclone maritime helicopters to replace our aging Sea Kings.
• Additionally, we extended the life our CF-18 fighter jets, modernized our Halifax class frigates, upgraded our LAV IIIs, refurbished our Aurora aircraft and started the National Ship Building Program which is already building the Harry DeWolfe class Arctic Off-Shore Patrol Vessels.
• We renewed the NORAD agreement in perpetuity in May 2006 and added a maritime warning mission to the mandate of the bi-national Canada-United States command.
• And we allocated over $1 billion in infrastructure investment in Canadian Armed Forces bases and stations in communities from coast-to-coast-to-coast.
• “The most significant cuts under program review occurred from 1995-2004… The cumulative expenditure over that period of time was roughly $13.4 billion below what our modeling showed was required to maintain existing force structure” (PBO Report, 2015)
• “This budget reminds me of that episode of Oprah where everybody in the audience got a car, everyone got a car here except the Department of Defence”( David Perry, Senior Analyst, with the Canadian Global Affairs Institute, March 22, 2016 , Globe and Mail)
• “Justin Trudeau’s first budget offers no new money for big-ticket military items and instead shrinks funding by $3.72-billion” (Steven Chase, March 22, Globe and Mail)
Today, former federal civil servants and members of the military who lost their jobs because of their sexual orientation launched a $600 million class-action lawsuit against the Government of Canada.
• It was a Conservative government that brought this practice of discrimination to an end. The Canadian Armed Forces have allowed members of the LGBTQ community to serve openly for nearly 25 years.
• All members of the Standing Committee on National defence voted unanimously to authorize the National Defence Ombudsman to review cases of Canadians who currently hold dishonourable discharge records from the Canadian Armed Forces for their gender and sexual identity or orientation.
• There is no place for sexual abuse, misconduct, or discrimination within the Canadian Armed Forces. All military members deserve respect from their colleagues, as well as all Canadians.
• All positions in the Canadians Armed Forces should be open to all Canadians.
• Nobody who chooses to serve our country should ever be subject to discrimination based on their sexual identity or orientation.
IF PRESSES ON DESCHAMPS REPORT:
• The previous Conservative government accepted all recommendations from the Deschamps report to eliminate all forms of sexual harassment from the CAF. We encourage the Liberals to provide regular briefings on the implantation of these recommendations.
• We are proud of, and support, all of our men and women in uniform who serve Canada.
Briefing note for debate Re: changes to Operation IMPACT
Prepared by Ben Silverman, Office of MP James Bezan
MOTION TO BE DEBATED:
No. 2 — February 11, 2016 — The Prime Minister — That the House support the government’s decision to broaden, improve, and redefine our contribution to the effort to combat ISIL by better leveraging Canadian expertise while complementing the work of our coalition partners to ensure maximum effect, including:
(a) refocusing our military contribution by expanding the advise and assist mission of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) in Iraq, significantly increasing intelligence capabilities in Iraq and theatre-wide, deploying CAF medical personnel, offering to provide the Government of Iraq ministerial liaison personnel to the Ministries of Defence and the Interior, enhancing capacity-building efforts with our defence partners in Jordan and Lebanon to advance regional stability, and withdrawing our CF-18s while maintaining air force surveillance and refuelling capability;
(b) improving the living conditions of conflict-affected populations and helping to build the foundations for long-term regional stability of host communities, including Lebanon and Jordan;
(c) investing significantly in humanitarian assistance while working with experienced humanitarian partners to support the basic needs of conflict-affected populations, including children and victims of sexual and gender-based violence;
(d) engaging more effectively with political leaders throughout the region, increasing Canada’s contribution to international efforts aimed at finding political solutions to the crises affecting the region and reinforcing our diplomatic presence to facilitate the delivery of enhanced programming, supporting increased CAF deployments, strengthening dialogue with local and international partners on the ground and generally giving Canada a stronger voice in the region;
(e) welcoming tens of thousands of Syrian refugees to Canada;
that the House express its appreciation and pride to the members of the CAF, diplomatic and intelligence personnel for their participation in the fight against terrorism, to Canadian humanitarian workers for their efforts to provide critical support to conflict-affected populations, and reconfirm our commitment to our allies in the coalition against ISIL; and
that the House note the government’s resolve to return to the House within two years with a new motion on Canada’s contribution to the region.
The Government of Canada will extend its military engagement in Iraq and Syria under Operation IMPACT until March 31, 2017, and make the following contributions under its new approach;
• increase its complement of military personnel to approximately 830, up from approximately 650
• Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel will be deployed at various Global Coalition headquarters to further support Coalition members and Iraqi security forces in the planning and execution of military operations. More specifically they will provide high-demand expertise in the areas of operational planning, targeting and intelligence.
• triple the size of its train, advise and assist mission to help Iraqi security forces plan and conduct military operations against ISIL. As part of this mission the government will also;
•deploy CAF medical personnel to provide training to Iraqi security forces in the conduct of casualty management in a battlefield context as well as to provide medical support to CAF personnel and our partners;
•provide equipment such as small arms, ammunition and optics to assist in the training of Iraqi security forces. The provision of such equipment will be carried out in accordance with Canadian and international law, including the Law of Armed Conflict; and,
• examine ways to enhance in-theatre tactical transport.
Maintain the current air contribution of one CC-150 Polaris aerial refuelling aircraft and up to two CP-140 Aurora aerial surveillance aircraft, along with associated aircrew and support personnel. These aircraft will continue to conduct operations throughout the Coalition theatre. As directed, the CAF will cease air strike operations in Iraq and Syria no later than February 22, 2016. As a result, the six CF-188 Hornets, along with associated aircrew and support personnel will be redeployed in a phased approach.
Media has reported that the military has confirmed Canada will deploy four Royal Canadian Air Force Griffon helicopters to northern Iraq to help the growing number of Canadian army trainers
Regional Capacity Building:
Subject to further discussion with regional partners, Canada will enhance its capacity-building efforts with security forces in Jordan and Lebanon to help prevent the spread of violent extremism. Canada is also offering to provide the Government of Iraq with a team of strategic advisors to the Ministries of Defence and the Interior.
Canada will allocate approximately $264 million towards these efforts with an additional $41.9 million allocated for redeployment of personnel and equipment in 2017. Recognizing the complexity of the challenging security environment, the government will assess at a later date whether the mission should be extended beyond March 31, 2017.
Non-military Security Efforts:
Other Government of Canada security initiatives include:
• $145 million over the next three years towards counter-terrorism; stabilization and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) security programming.
• continuing efforts to: support security forces and law enforcement capacity building and training; stem the flow of foreign terrorist fighters; cut off ISIL’s access to financing and funding; counter ISIL’s propaganda; and engage in other security and stabilization efforts, such as mitigating the risks posed by explosive remnants of war and providing assistance to enable the return of internally-displaced persons to newly liberated areas.
• deliver $840 million in humanitarian assistance over the next three years to support the basic needs of those hardest hit by the conflicts, including food, shelter, health care, water, sanitation and hygiene, as well as protection and emergency education. Assistance will target the most vulnerable, including children and survivors of sexual and gender-based violence; and
• deliver $270 million over the next three years to build local capacity to provide basic social services, (e.g. education, health, water, sanitation), maintain and rehabilitate public infrastructure, foster inclusive growth and employment – including by enhancing women’s and youth employment – and advance inclusive and accountable governance. Programming will focus on helping women and youth, improving maternal, newborn and child health and advancing gender equality. It will also focus on promoting environmental sustainability.
Depending on local circumstances, programming in Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Syria will help address:
• the educational needs of children and youth;
• the capacity of municipalities to provide basic services and manage tensions between hosting communities and refugees as required;
• and youth and women’s employment, including through training.
Media has reported that the government will provide $15 million in annual funding to UNRWA, an organization the previous Conservative government cut funding to in 2009.
Canada’s new approach is increasing its diplomatic role in helping to find a political solution to the crisis in Syria, and assisting the efforts of the Iraqi government to foster reconciliation. In implementing our new approach, an increased presence on the ground in Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon will allow Canada to engage more effectively with local and international partners and actively contribute to finding solutions to the issues facing these countries and the region.
• There is a lack of clarity surrounding the deployment troops, military assets and the allocation of humanitarian aid funding.
• This military plan increases the exposure of risk the members of the CAF, while reducing security via air-support.
• We will be 100% reliant on our allies to provide air-support to our troops on the ground.
• Canadian air-strikes have been an effective element of the coalition’s campaign to destroy ISIS and providing air-support to Canadian and Allied ground troops.
• The Liberals’ plan becomes even more incoherent by leaving our Polarias and Aurora aircraft in the air combat mission and enabling our allies to drop their bombs on ISIS, but refusing to drop any Canadian bombs.
• This is Canada’s fight, withdrawing from direct combat against ISIS sends the wrong to Canadians and to our Allies
• There has been no request to stop bombing, no justification to end the bombing campaign has been provided.
1. Remove the section that the reads ‘and withdrawing our CF-18s’.
• Liberals have not provided a single reason how withdrawing our fighter jets will benefit the coalition
• The CF-18’s have contributed effectively to the destruction of ISIS and provided valuable air support
• We will still be painting targets, conducting surveillance, and providing fuel
2. Add a section regarding force protection
• The tripling of CAF soldiers in the advise, assist and training roles, will also triple the risks for Canadian troops
• Using RCAF Griffon helicopters for close combat aerial support is inherently more dangerous than bombing ISIS fighting positions with our CF-18s.
• Canada is now 100% reliant other nations to provide air-support to our troops on the ground.
3. Provide accountability for Canadian dollars provided for humanitarian aid
• The Minister of International Development has admitted that Canadian’s tax dollars could end up in the hands of terrorist.
• Canadians want their tax dollars to go toward defeating terrorism, not supporting it.
4. Express sincere gratitude for the service of the members of the CAF
• The men and women of the Canadian Armed Forces put their lives at risk to keep Canadians safe and destroy ISIS.
• This motion does not adequately express our gratitude towards the members of the CAF, especially the air task force and special operations forces.
RELATIONSHIP TO PARTY POLICY:
• A belief that Canada should continue its strong heritage of national defence, supporting a well-armed military, honouring those who serve, and promoting our history and traditions;
• A belief that Canada should accept its obligations among the nations of the world;
130. Foreign Affairs Principles
The Conservative Party supports a foreign policy that protects Canada’s sovereignty and independence, promotes our national interests (political, economic and strategic), contributes to collective security and defence, promotes democratic principles and human rights, and assists in international development.
We believe the government should recognize the importance of an ethical dimension in foreign policy and will advance the values broadly supported by Canadians.
We believe that Canada's international relations, trade and foreign aid policies should advance the country's economic interests while promoting human rights and individual freedom.
We believe the government should integrate our foreign policy with policies on trade and national defence.
131. Foreign Aid – Official Development Assistance
The Conservative Party believes in the inherent benefits of development assistance to Canadians and the world. Development assistance must be anchored by expression of Canadian values and pursued within the context of Canada’s strategic interests as defined by an integrated foreign policy.
We support increasing the effectiveness of humanitarian aid efforts by the Canadian government. In order to accomplish this, it encourages the establishment of clear criteria for recipient countries. 53
We believe the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) should be authorized to monitor and report on the expenditure and implementation of all official development assistance dollars to ensure it meets the objectives of poverty reduction, respect for human rights and good governance. CIDA should be responsible for publishing an annual report to the public to maintain public support for increases in ODA, enhance transparency, and increase accountability.
We support measures to ensure that the ODA envelope of spending will increase in a steady and predictable manner, and in particular the framework for increasing Canada’s contribution to the developing world, under which development assistance will be doubled by 2012.
We believe that CIDA must advise Canadian industry when and where it is committing aid dollars. This will ensure that Canadian businesses have the opportunity to bid on the tenders.
132. Parliamentary Role in Foreign Affairs
The Conservative Party believes that Parliament must be responsible for exercising effective oversight over the conduct of the Canadian Armed Forces.
134. Canada First Defence Strategy
The Conservative Party believes that the purpose of Canada’s defence policy is to better defend the national interest – the security of the Canadian nation and the economic prosperity of the Canadian people – in accord with the values of Canadians.
The Conservative Party believes that Canada has a direct interest in a more stable and secure world. Our government must be positioned to deal with complex international security issues in order to protect our citizens and contribute to the broader responsibility.
In a post September 11th world, we believe government should continue to enhance the foreign intelligence gathering and analytical capacity of the CSIS, Department of National Defence, and Communications Security Establishment.
As reported in the 2014-15 Departmental Performance Report, the actual incremental costs related to Op IMPACT for fiscal year 2014-15 totaled approximately $70 million.
Since 2012, the Conservative Government committed close to $1 billion in humanitarian, development and security/stabilization assistance.
Funding announced by the Liberals:
Canada will allocate approximately $264 million towards these efforts with an additional $41.9 million allocated for redeployment of personnel and equipment in 2017.
They will contribute more than $1.6 billion over the next three years towards its new approach to security, stabilization, humanitarian and development assistance in response to the crises in Iraq and Syria, and their impact on Jordan and Lebanon.
• Rational for supporting this motion:
• To demonstrate support for our troops.
• It extends Canada’s military contribution to the coalition until March 2017.
• Our party is committed to the destruction of ISIS.
• We support expanded training and humanitarian missions.
• Not supporting the motion could be seen as not supporting the coalition or not supporting our troops.
Rational for not supporting this Motion:
• The proposed motion increases the risk to CAF members but reduces Canadian air-support
• Risk is increased due to the increase in boots on the ground and the using RCAF Griffon helicopters for close combat aerial support is inherently more dangerous than bombing ISIS fighting positions with our CF-18s.
• Lack of details surrounding the deployment of troops, military assets and allocation of humanitarian funding.
• There have been no details provided regarding the type of training that will be provided
• Media reports indicate the military could deploy Griffon helicopters (not in the motion)
• Other reports indicate funding will be provided to international organizations will spotty pasts (UNRWA and Syria Red Crescent)
• The Minister of International Development has admitted that Canadian’s tax dollars could end up in the hands of terrorist. Her comments demonstrates the Liberal’s wilful blindness: “Obviously, we will not get involved in any way in this once we have given money to an organization.”
According the CAF Operation IMPACT is defined as the Canadian Armed Forces’ (CAF) contribution to the Middle East Stabilization Force (MESF) – the multinational coalition to halt and degrade the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
• Canada should be contributing directly the destruction of ISIS.
• The CF-18’s have been effective in taking out ISIS and providing air-support- there is no reason to stop.
• No justification for withdrawing the CF-18s has been provided, we are willing to paint targets, conduct surveillance, provide fuel for bombers, but we won’t drop any Canadian bombs.
If we are going to send more boots on the ground, we need to ensure the proper force protection is in place. We should not rely on our Allies to protect our soldiers.
This is Canada’s fight: ISIS is committing a brutal genocide, they have called for an inspired attacks against Canada, including the murder of two Canadian Armed Forces members.
• We have an obligation to stand up for the victims of genocide, fight against this twisted ideology, and protect Canadians at home and abroad.
Public Opinion: A February 6, 2016 Angus Reid poll found that:
• 63% of Canadians say they would either like to see Canada continue bombing ISIS at its current rate or go further and increase the number of bombing missions it conducts.
• 47% say withdrawing CF-18s from the mission will have a negative effect Canada’s international reputation, while fewer than one-in-five (18%) say it will have a positive one.
• Despite diplomatic reaction to Canada’s new strategy to ‘combat’ ISIS, we have a lost our voice in terms of contributing to the military strategy against ISIS.
• Canada’s has a historic and moral obligation to stand with our Allies.
Support for Troops:
• This motion does not express adequate gratitude to the members of the CAF, especially the Air Task Force and Special Operation Forces.
If we do support this motion we can be seen as abandoning our stance on the CF-18s.
• “Every single ISIS leader should never have a single moment in their life when they're not worried about looking at the sky and having a missile come out and end their life, or go to bed and have that door blown in and have some commandos come in and capture or kill them”
•"They should be worried because if they're not, they're going to have more time to plan. And I believe Canada has to be a part of that." - Rick Hillier, Former CDS (CBC News, Nov 27, 2015)
•“We would like to tell [Canada] them that the air strikes have been effective, they have helped us a great deal. They have helped save lives. They have helped to destroy the enemy, And if it were for us [to decide], we request that to continue” - Falah Mustafa Bakir, foreign affairs minister for the Kurdistan Regional Government (Globe and Mail, Nov 22, 2015)
•“It is a bad news for us. Canada was a major partner in the coalition and it was a great help to Kurdistan”- Jabar Yawar, chief of staff for the Kurdish Regional Government’s Peshmerga Ministry (Globe and Mail, Oct 21, 2015)
• “We should not be content to outsource our security to our allies. If we believe action can help protect us then with our allies we should be a part of that action, not standing aside from it”
•“If we won’t act now, when our Friend and Allie France has been struck in this way, then our allies in the world can be forgiven for asking, if not now than when?”- PM David Cameron (Parliamentary Debate, November 26, 2015)
•"If we don't have our fighter jets, we are not going to have much of a voice," he told the paper. “We won't get much recognition. Strategically, at the political level, we are going to lose here." Ret. MGen David Fraser (Globe and mail, Jan 7, 2016)
•“You will not win this campaign with only airstrikes, but you certainly won’t win without them” Ret. MGen David Fraser (CTV Power Play, January 19, 2016)
• The Liberals are increasing our troops’ exposure to risk, while removing all Canadian Force protection measures
• This plan neglects Canada’s obligations to stand up for the vulnerable populations and protect Canadians at home and abroad, it is a step backwards from Canada’s traditional role
• Canada has a long, proud history of defending innocent and vulnerable populations by taking on those who commit mass atrocities.
• Canada has been a key ally in the air combat effort, the fifth largest contributor today. It is extremely irresponsible for the government to not only downplay Canada’s contribution, but to whittle it down for political purposes.
• ISIS has declared war on Canada and our allies. It is paramount that the government stands shoulder-to-shoulder with our allies to defend and protect the safety and security of Canadians both here and abroad.
• The Liberals remain incoherent on the air combat mission. They have not provided any explanation of how the withdrawal of the CF-18s will help the coalition more effectively able to defeat ISIS. Despite the Liberal government’s supposed opposition to bombing, Canadian aircraft will continue to refuel planes that conduct airstrikes and identify targets for them.
• Canada has the capacity to continue to contribute to airstrikes alongside training and humanitarian support. Canadian Armed Forces personnel have been doing so very effectively for nearly a year.
• The Liberals’ focus today on humanitarian and security assistance (which was already being done, and where Canada was already one of the world’s leading donors under the mission approved under Conservatives in 2014) is simply an attempt by them to distract away from the withdrawal of the CF-18s from the mission
• Prime Minister Trudeau talked a lot about rhetoric today. He said, “The lethal enemy of barbarism isn’t hatred, it’s reason.” But if “reason” is the answer, what reason justifies backing away from a just fight?
The Leader should take the lead on the communications, with support from the relevant critics (National Defence, Foreign Affairs, and International Development).
We should be proactive with media requests and communications tools so that we are prepared to respond and get our message out as soon as the mission is tabled.
DEFENCE POLICY REVIEW CONSULTATIONS
Tuesday, April 19 2016
Prepared by Ben Silverman, Office of James Bezan
Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan announced that the government will hold public consultations in advance of review of Canada’s defence policy. Members of Parliament from all parties have been asked to hold community roundtable meetings in their respective ridings. Canadians will be able to directly submit written proposals online. Special closed door roundtables will also be held across the country with academia, think tanks, industry, and special interest groups.
- These consultations are a stall tactic by the Liberals to delay making any important defence decisions.
- The Liberals already have a pre-determined defence policy in mind. They laid it in their campaign platform, speech from the throne, and budget 2016. These consultations will be nothing more than charade for the public.
- The CPC should participate in the consultation process and conduct our own set of consultations across the country.
- We should invite experts and established organizations (industry, academics, veterans, stakeholders) to submit their policy considerations. Invites should be made open to the public and media, limiting contributions to the experts only.
- Coordinate CPC MP consultations across the country to formulate the party’s policy. This will give us one clear and concise policy position.
- We will ask the 10 questions purposed by the Minister of National Defence, plus developing a set of our own questions to ensure all of our concerns are addressed.
- We will not be legitimizing this Liberal consultation process. Rather this will be an opportunity to ensure that the Conservative views are accurately reflected in the policy review.
- We will invite legitimate experts to counter-balance the Liberal friendly expert panels.
- Our own set of consultations will allow us to develop our own policy review and contrast it with what the Liberals come up with.
- We can use this as a communications tool to present and sell the CPC defence policy to the Canadian public.
- Asking questions beyond the 10 purposed by the Minister will allow us to tap into issues that the Liberals will ignore.
- We can use the consultations/ policy review as an opportunity to defend our record and the CFDS and Defence Procurement Strategy.
Defence Policy Submission- COmmunications Roll OUT
Memo to Caucus
Attached, please find the Conservative Defence Policy Review Package to assist you in running consultations in your riding. This will parallel the Liberals’ defence policy review. As Conservatives we have a strong record to be proud of and to defend. More importantly the future of the Defence of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces will be deeply impacted by the outcomes of this review.
The Minister of National Defence, Harjit Sajjan, has invited all Parliamentarians to host local consultations across the country. As the Critic and Associate Critic for National Defence, Pierre Paul-Hus and I will be coordinating our party's response. We are encouraging you to meet with experts and stakeholders for your Constituencies.
It is important we give all Canadians an opportunity to participate in this review. The Minister will be holding only six roundtables. Our local consultations will ensure the government's policy will be truly reflective of Canadian values.
Attached you will find several products to help you in hosting and promoting a consultation in your riding. Pierre's and my offices are both available to answer questions.
James Bezan, MP
Official Opposition Critic for National Defence